Giacomo Zanasi

Curriculum vitæ
In 2022 he received his Master’s Degree in History and Civilisation presented at the University of Pisa with a grade of 110/110 cum laude, presenting a thesis in entitled “«Li tiranni di quella fazione». Controrivoluzione, guerra civile e giustizia politica a Livorno e in Toscana nel 1849”, and completed the undergraduate course of the Scuola Normale Superiore.

Carmine Pinto

Research project

Title: “Counter-revolution, civil war and political justice in Tuscany in 1848-1849

The project aims to reconstruct the events of an Italian political space at the end of the long forty- eight: the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. The aim is to read the last part of the revolution, and its repression, in the light of the most recent historiographic acquisitions on counterrevolution and civil war, showing the high internal conflict that characterized the context examined. The analysis starts from the autumn of 1848, when the Democrats relaunched the patriotic discourse after the defeat of the royal war, and the political failure of the moderates. The latter part of the long forty-eight was marked by a gradual radicalization of political discourse and practices, which led to a growing division between proponents and opponents of the revolution. The latter were concentrated in the Tuscan countryside, disrupted by a series of peasant uprisings aimed at overthrowing the democratic government, which responded by mobilizing its supporters, concentrated in the city of Livorno. This phase of opposition reached a climax in April 1849, when the moderate patriciate overthrew the democratic government after a day of fighting in the streets of Florence between commoners and Livorno volunteers, seizing power in the name of the grand-duke to avoid an Austrian military intervention. The latter would instead occur, as the counterrevolutionary forces failed to subjugate Livorno, which remained in the hands of the radical democrats. The Tuscan political space in the spring of 1849 appears decidedly divided, so much so that it is plausible to speak of civil war to describe the violent political struggle that pitted supporters and opponents of the revolution against each other. The restored grand ducal authorities attempted to mend the deep rift in the political community through political justice, which involved thousands of defendants accused of taking part in revolutionary events, and who therefore had to be punished and neutralized. After a phase of trials, an amnesty was granted, but excluding the leaders of the revolutionary movement, representing the final moment of the long Tuscan Forty-Eight.